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Hooks are a feature in React that allow you use state and other React features without writing classes. This website provides easy to understand code examples to help you learn how hooks work and inspire you to take advantage of them in your next project.

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This hook makes it easy to see which prop changes are causing a component to re-render. If a function is particularly expensive to run and you know it renders the same results given the same props you can use the React.memo higher order component, as we've done with the Counter component in the below example. In this case if you're still seeing re-renders that seem unnecessary you can drop in the useWhyDidYouUpdate hook and check your console to see which props changed between renders and view their previous/current values. Pretty nifty huh?

A huge thanks to Bruno Lemos for the idea and original code. You can also see it in action in the CodeSandbox demo.

import { useState, useEffect, useRef } from "react";

// Let's pretend this <Counter> component is expensive to re-render so ...
// ... we wrap with React.memo, but we're still seeing performance issues :/
// So we add useWhyDidYouUpdate and check our console to see what's going on.
const Counter = React.memo((props) => {
  useWhyDidYouUpdate("Counter", props);
  return <div style={}>{props.count}</div>;

function App() {
  const [count, setCount] = useState(0);
  const [userId, setUserId] = useState(0);

  // Our console output tells use that the style prop for <Counter> ...
  // ... changes on every render, even when we only change userId state by ...
  // ... clicking the "switch user" button. Oh of course! That's because the
  // ... counterStyle object is being re-created on every render.
  // Thanks to our hook we figured this out and realized we should probably ...
  // ... move this object outside of the component body.
  const counterStyle = {
    fontSize: "3rem",
    color: "red",

  return (
      <div className="counter">
        <Counter count={count} style={counterStyle} />
        <button onClick={() => setCount(count + 1)}>Increment</button>
      <div className="user">
        <img src={`${userId}`} />
        <button onClick={() => setUserId(userId + 1)}>Switch User</button>

// Hook
function useWhyDidYouUpdate(name, props) {
  // Get a mutable ref object where we can store props ...
  // ... for comparison next time this hook runs.
  const previousProps = useRef();

  useEffect(() => {
    if (previousProps.current) {
      // Get all keys from previous and current props
      const allKeys = Object.keys({ ...previousProps.current, ...props });
      // Use this object to keep track of changed props
      const changesObj = {};
      // Iterate through keys
      allKeys.forEach((key) => {
        // If previous is different from current
        if (previousProps.current[key] !== props[key]) {
          // Add to changesObj
          changesObj[key] = {
            from: previousProps.current[key],
            to: props[key],

      // If changesObj not empty then output to console
      if (Object.keys(changesObj).length) {
        console.log("[why-did-you-update]", name, changesObj);

    // Finally update previousProps with current props for next hook call
    previousProps.current = props;
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